True – False
16. The induction “Soccer is like football. Each has a ball, each has a team, each has a goal line, and each is played on a field. Since most Americans are crazy about football, theyll probably go nuts over soccer too” is a(n)
a) Argument based on analogy c) A Generalization
b) Argument based on signs d) A Cause-and-effect argument
17. Which of the following is a valid argument?
a) People usually enjoy a morning walk. Even though it is hot and smoggy this morning, you will enjoy a walk.
b) Every day the sun rises, so it will probably rise tomorrow.
c) If John loves Star Wars, then John loves Star Trek. John hates Star Trek, so John hates Star Wars.
d) Either it will rain or it will snow. It snowed; therefore, it did not rain.
18. Which of the following is a sound argument?
a) Every time I see the Exorcist I get scared to death. I saw the Exorcist last night; therefore I am dead.
b) If it is a pig, then it has wings. Its a pig; therefore it has wings.
c) If the sun is out, then it is not raining. Its not raining; therefore the sun must be out.
d) If it is a dog, then it is an animal. This is not an animal; therefore it is not a dog.
19. Which of these is a strong argument?
a) If pass this class, then you studied. John did not pass this class. Therefore, John did not study.
b) If you go to the store, Ill give you money. I did not give you any money, so you must not have gone to the store.
c) All turtles ever found in Tasmania are green; so probably all Tasmanian turtles are green.
d) 10% of women in college never have children. So, if are in college, you will probably wont get pregnant.
20. Which of the following commits a fallacy?
a) If it flies then its a bird. It flies; therefore its a bird.
b) If you drive a woody wagon, then youre a surfer. John is not a surfer; so he does not drive a woody wagon.
c) If you dance youll love country music. I dont dance; therefore I do not love country music.
d) The Captain sinks with the ship or the Captain swims. The captain did not sink with the ship; so he swam.
Using the diagram provided, answer the following questions: (Use these answers for questions 21 25)
a) Numbers 3 and 2 c) Numbers 6, 7, and 8 e) None of these
b) Numbers 2 and 4 d) Numbers 2, 4, and 5
21. Which series of numbers indicates a vertical argument pattern?
22. Which series of numbers indicates conjoint premises?
23. Which series of numbers indicates multiple conclusions?
24. Which series of numbers indicates a general Horizontal Pattern of independent evidence?
25. Which series of numbers indicates conjoint premises for intermediate conclusion # 5?
Given the following syllogism,
All drivers afraid of sobriety checkpoints are drinkers. Hence, some drinkers are drunk drivers, since some drunk drivers are drivers afraid of sobriety checkpoints.
d. exclusive Premises e. No Fallacy
Given the following syllogistic form,
Some P are not M.
All M are S.
Some S are not P.
e. Commits Existential fallacy for Aristotle if M equals mermaids.
Given the following syllogism:
All sharks are fish.
All sharks are mammals.
Some mammals are fish.
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